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distributed OS (-> Tanenbaum, "Distributed Operating Systems") 

Distributed OS 
Reference Model  for Open Distributed Processing
The rapid growth of distributed processing has led to a need for a co-ordinating framework for the standardisation of Open Distributed Processing (ODP). As a result, a Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) is undergoing the process of standardisation in a joint effort of ISO and ITU-T (formerly CCITT). ODP describes systems that support heterogeneous distributed processing both within and between organisations through the use of a common interaction model. 

The goal of RM-ODP is to achieve:  portability of applications across heterogeneous platforms.  interworking between ODP systems, i.e. meaningful exchange of information and the convenient use of functionality throughout the distributed system.  distribution transparency, i.e. hide the consequences of distribution from both the applications programmer and user. 

The reference model provides a "big picture" that organises the pieces of an ODP system into a coherent whole. It does not try to standardise the components of the system nor to unnecessarily influence the choice of technology. 
  Ian Joyner, Open Distributed Processing: Unplugged! DSTC's RM-ODP Information Service DSTC's Trader Information Service DSTC's Type Management Information Service
ISO's documentation on Open Distributed Processing - Reference Model:  Part 2: Foundations - ISO/IEC DIS 10746-2  Part 3: Architecture - ISO/IEC DIS 10746-3  ls -l of GMD's /documents/iso/RM-ODP directory

The Distributed Systems Technology Center (DSTC) 
DTSC Pty Ltd 
Level 7, GP South 
The University of Queensland 
QLD 4072 
Tel: +61 (0)7 3365 4310 
Fax: +61 (0)7 3365 4311 

The DSTC is a joint venture supported by the Australian Government's Cooperative Research Centres Program and over 30 participating organisations developing the technological infrastructure for tomorrow's global distributed systems. 

DSTC conducts world class research, develops software, offers training and professional consulting services, and hosts part of the Research Data Network CRC. Key technology areas for DSTC include: 
  Workflows, Collaborative Computing, Groupware, Notification Services,  Enterprise Architectures,  Distributed Object Middleware, CORBA, Java,  Distributed Databases, Data Access,  Internet Searching, Metadata, XML,  Knowledge Management,  Security, Networks, and Distributed System Management. 

DSTC's headquarters is in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, with offices in several other Australian states. 

Geoffrey Faivre-Malloy, DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING 
"Simply put, distributed computing is a method that breaks a large task into many small tasks that individual computers can solve separately. 
     One area that lends itself to distributed computing very well is mathematics. Using the idle time of computers around the world, people have teamed together to solve problems that previously were only in the realm of supercomputers. There are many reasons why people would participate in such efforts; fame, riches, and even to find alien life. 
     Distributed computing is for everyone interested. If you've got a computer, there's an extremely good chance that some project can be run on it (Yes, even you Amiga fans can use your computers again.) So dust off those doorstops, rev up those hotrods and read on! 
     The majority of these projects don't slow down your computer at all. Typically, they run in a very low priority consuming all idle time that your computer might have. ... 
   "Does distributed computing really work? Simply ask one of the thousands of people who helped prove that DES is a weak encryption standard. It only took them a couple of months of concerted effort to break it (with the current group, it would take about 45 minutes). Or ask George Woltman, the coordinator of the Mersenne Primes project. Since he started the project, two new Mersenne Primes have been discovered (to date, only 36 have been found in centuries of searching). 
(in: Boardwatch Magazine, Nov. 1997) 

The Internet Society: Network and Distributed System Security Symposium, San Diego, California, 03 - 05 February 1999 

"Computing Fabrics" 
"A major new wave in computing--one that we believe promises within the next five years to deliver almost limitless cheap computing power and to change the balance of power among technology vendors--is in sight.
     The first ripples are beginning to appear. Major vendors, including Intel Corp., Silicon Graphics Inc., Hewlett-Packard Co. and Microsoft Corp., are quietly collaborating on plans to create a new type of commercial systems architecture--one we call Computing Fabrics....
     A Computing Fabric will consist of nodes--packages of processors, memory and peripherals--linked together by interconnects that allow thousands of processors to communicate. Within the Fabrics are regions of nodes and interconnects that are so tightly coupled they appear as single nodes. These are cells.
      Tight coupling within cells is achieved with hardware, software or both. Cells in the Fabric are then loosely coupled with each other and the Fabric as a whole. Each cell can grow or shrink in a dynamic fashion, meaning that nodes and links can be added and removed.
     Fluid system boundaries are the essence of Computing Fabrics. The many processors in a Computing Fabric can come together as a tightly coupled system one moment. They can become loosely coupled with other systems in the Fabric the next moment. Then they can dissipate and reassemble, essentially allocating processing cycles on demand.....
     Also critical will be a cellular operating system that can coordinate processors linked in a distributed Fabric. SGI is working on such an operating system, Cellular Irix, which is due in the first quarter of 2000....
     Microsoft has expressed interest in Cellular Irix's development and may, we believe, license it and integrate elements into its Windows NT kernel. Microsoft is also working on its own implementation of Computing Fabrics in its Millennium distributed object project, which will take advantage of the Virtual Interface Architecture clustering model being developed by Microsoft, Compaq Computer Corp. and Intel."
(Erick and Linda Von Schweber, Computing's Next Wave. Researchers predict lots of cheap computing power is on the way, PC Week, October 5, 1998)

Plan 9 
Java / Jini
Cellular Irix (SGI)


DOS (aka MS-DOS)  and DOS-similar and extensions

Is it a OS ? Or what else?

  • The FreeDOS project for a free DOS clone, based on Pat Villani's DOS-C kernel.
  • DOS emulators: Linux uses DOS emulator running on i386 architectures (also BSD). Hardware emulator.
  • Caldera has given DR-DOS 7.03 to the public domain, as free-for-non-commercial-use.
  • Commercial DOS clones :
    • PTS-DOS is a (commercial) DOS clone from Russia
    • RxDOS is a (commercial) DOS clone
    • TSX-32 small 32-bit (commercial) OS can emulate DOS.
    • SuperDOS, ROM-DOS, Real32, Multiuser DOS.

DR-DOS (Digital Research Disc Operating System/later Caldera)  (outdated)
see DOS or above.



All about OSs


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